ZOONOTIC CASES 


    • Dengue

      Dengue is a disease caused by dengue viruses. The viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito.     
      • Symptoms

        Several typical symptoms are caused by dengue including high fever, severe headache, severe pain behind the eyes, joint pain, muscle and bone pain, rash, and mild bleeding. Young children generally have a milder symptoms than those old children and adults. The symptom of Dengue is processing , at first patients is with high fever, when fever decline, symptoms including persistent vomiting, severe abdominal pain, and difficulty breathing, may occur.

      • Treatment

        No specific medication is used to treat dengue. Using analgesics may help, but the attention to avoilding aspirin is indispensible. Consulting a physician, drinking plenty of fluid can be a good choice. If they feel worse (e.g., develop vomiting and severe abdominal pain) in the first 24 hours after the fever declines, they should go immediately to the hospital for evaluation.

    • Q-fever

      Q fever is a disease caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii which is found worldwide. The bacteria naturally infects some animals, such as goats, sheep and cattle.     
      • Symptoms

        About half the people infected with Q fever will get sick. A very small percentage of people who become infected with Q fever develop a more serious infection called chronic Q fever. There are two kinds of Q-fever, chronic Q fever and acute Q fever. Chronic Q fever is serious and can be fatal if not treated correctly.

      • Treatment

        Acute Q fever:

        • Most cases of acute Q fever will recover without antibiotic treatment.
        • Those that do require treatment can be effectively treated with the antibiotic doxycycline.

        Chronic Q fever:

        • Chronic Q fever is a serious infection and requires several months of antibiotic treatment.
        • Chronic Q fever is treated with a combination of antibiotics including doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine for several months.
    • Plague

      Plague is a disease that affects humans and other mammals. It is caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis. Humans usually get plague after being bitten by a rodent flea that is carrying the plague bacterium or by handling an animal infected with plague.
      • Symptoms

        Depending on how the patient was exposed to the plague bacteria, the symptoms of plague can diverse, several clinical forms can occur, including bubinic, pneumonic and speticemic.  

        Bubonic plague:Patients develop sudden onset of fever, headache, chills, and weakness and one or more swollen, tender and painful lymph nodes (called buboes). This form usually results from the bite of an infected flea.

        Septicemic plague:Patients develop fever, chills, extreme weakness, abdominal pain, shock, and possibly bleeding into the skin and other organs. Skin and other tissues may turn black and die, especially on fingers, toes, and the nose. This form results from bites of infected fleas or from handling an infected animal.

        Pneumonic plague:Patients develop fever, headache, weakness, and a rapidly developing pneumonia with shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and sometimes bloody or watery mucous. Pneumonic plague is the most serious form of the disease and is the only form of plague that can be spread from person to person (by infectious droplets).

        Plague is a serious illness. If you are experiencing symptoms like those listed here, seek immediate medical attention. Prompt treatment with the correct medications is critical to prevent complications or death.

      • Preventions

        1. Reduce rodent habitat around your home, workplace, and recreational areas. Make your home and outbuildings rodent-proof.
        2. Wear gloves if you are handling or skinning potentially infected animals to prevent contact between your skin and the plague bacteria. Contact your local health department if needed.
        3. Use repellent if you think you could be exposed to rodent fleas during activities such as camping, hiking, or working outdoors.
        4. Keep fleas off of your pets by applying flea control products.
        5. Do not allow dogs or cats that roam free in endemic areas to sleep on your bed.
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