Transmission Routes of Zoonotic Diseases

Aerosol:

Aerosols are colloid of fine olid particles or liquid droplets, it can be both natural and arificial. Examples of aerosols include fog, haze, dust, particulate matters, etc. Infections through aerosols occur when droplets are passed through the air from an infected animal and are breathed in by a person. Most exposure occurs when droplets are created from biething tissues, soil contaminated with feces, urine or bacteria and a person breathes int he dust particles. One example of aerosol transmitted disease is H1N1, and it was common in 2009. The way to prevent aerosol transmission is to wear face masks or respirator, for example, N95 mask.

Vector:

Occurs when an insect acquires a pathogen from one animal and transmits it to a person. Normally vectors are regarded as animate organisms like insects, but in some cases they can also be inanimate objects like dust. Many anthropods are thought to be pathogen vectors, including mosquitoes, flies, and ticks, and most of these anthropods are haematophagous, which feed on blood throught their lives. Malaria, a lethal disease that has killed hundreds of thousands of people in Africa, is transmitted by mosquitoes. Oral:

Occurs by ingesting food or wataer contaminated with a pathogen. This can occur if animal products, such as milk or meat, are not pasteurized or cooked properly. Eating or drinking after handling animals without washing your hands could also lead to oral zoonotic disease transmission.

Direct Contact:

Requires the presence of a pathogen in the environment or within an infected animal. A person becomes exposed when the pathogen directly touches open wounds, mucous membranes or he skin. Also, direct contact includes person-to-person contact. Transmission occurs when people directly contact or exchange body fluid with each other. Not only zoonosis, many lethal diseases like HIV can be transmitted through this way. A pregnant women who is a carrier of certain disease has high possibility to pass the disease to her children through placenta, so it is very dangerous for women with certain diseases to be pregnant. Fomite:

A fomite is an inanimate object that can carry a pathogen from an animal to a person. Skin cells, hair, clothing, and beddings are common fomites. Researches show that fomites that have smooth surfaces like door knobs have stronger ability to transmit bacterias and viruses than fomites with rough surfaces like paper moeny.