Zoonoses (/ˌzoʊ.əˈnoʊsᵻs/, plural -/ˈnoʊsiːz/, also spelled zoönoses; singular zoonosis (or zoönosis); from Greek: ζῷον zoon "animal" and νόσος nosos "sickness") are infectious diseases of animals (usually vertebrates) that can naturally be transmitted to humans.
Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans in the early part of the 20th century, though it has now evolved to a separate human-only disease. Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases, although many strains of swine and bird flu are zoonoses; these viruses occasionally recombine with human strains of the flu and can cause pandemics such as the 1918 Spanish flu or the 2009 Swine flu. Zoonoses can be caused by a range of disease pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites; of 1,415 pathogens known to infect humans, 61% were zoonotic. Most human diseases originated in animals; however, only diseases that routinely involve animal to human transmission, like rabits, are considered direct zoonosis.
Zoonoses have different modes of transmission. In direct zoonosis the disease is directly transmitted from animals to humans through media such as air (influenza) or through bites and saliva (rabies). In contrast, transmission can also occur via an intermediate species (referred to as a vector), which carry the disease pathogen without getting infected. When humans infect animals, it is called reverse zoonosis or anthroponosis.
What can we do to avoid the spreading of the zoonoses?
The major way for the viruls which causes the zoonotic diseases is by air and touching. Adding a air clearner(refresher) into the system will help a lot on keeping the air clean. And the air cleaner itself is easy to clear and repair comparing to other machines.
To notice the situation of the animals without checking the health condition of the animals one bu one, we could use the drones. It is a good way to take pictures of the all over situation of the farm. With more advanced sensors and cameras on the drone, people can even tell which individual on the ground is save and which one is in danger. A multimotor drone is a good carrier for many devices, including temprature sensor, IR sensor , etc. Furthermore, the drones are capable to carry drugs for those people need to spray onto a very large area; drones are more efficient than those bigger machines and more accurate than them, and most important, they are much easier to get and easy to learn.
The drone is easy to build and re-program if needed.(even easy for a high school student)