Colorado State Annual Report
What is Plague
Wildlife plague is a kind of zoonotic which is flea-borne and rodent-associated. The etiologic agent of wildlife plague, or microorganisms and microbial toxins, is a gram-negative bacterium, Yersinia pestis, usually shortened as Y. pestis. Flea bite is the way that most plague spreads out while the others are infected by handling infected animals or inhaling infectious respiratory droplets. Plague is acute and life-threatening, and it requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. The invasion of fleas within their mammalian hosts promote the spread of Y. pestis virulence and transmission factors. The secondary spread of the organism accompanied by sepsis, multiorgan failure and occasionally severe pneumonia would result in death occuring quickly. Four different treaments are mainly used to cure plague, including aminoglycosides, tetracylines, chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones. Its prevention relies on surveillance, control of fleas, rodent sanitation, personal protective measures, avoiding sick animals, isolation of pneumonic plague patients, the use of appropriate respiratory precautions and prophylactic antibiotic treatment for persons with likely exposures. Human plague occurs mostly in Africa and sometimes in the Americas and Asia. (1)
Colorado is a state in the United states consisting of most of the Southern Rocky Mountains, the northeastern part of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. Colorado is in the Western United Sates, the Southwestern United States, and the Mountain States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the population of Colorado State was 5540545 in 2016.
Colorado reported eight human cases of plague in 2014, the highest number since people began reporting in 1975. An infected pet dog is credited for the outbreak in the summer, which contributed to the high number of cases seen. Fortunately all cases of human plague in 2014 survived and recovered ( 2).
Colorado reported four human cases of plague in 2015, and unfortunately two of the affected individuals did not survive ( 3).
A picture of plague ( goo.gl/ACSXgP)
A map of U.S. with Colorado State marked out
The number of infected individuals for every disease from 2009 to 2014
The number of infected individuals for every disease from 2010 to 2015
The number of infected individuals by disease type from 1959 to 2013
- K. L. Gage, C. B. Beard, Infectious Disease (Elsevier, ed. 4, 2017) vol. 2, pp. 1078-1084, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-7020-6285-8.00126-X
- Colorado Government, Zoonotic Disease in Colorado: Annual Report 2014, https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/DC_CD_Zoo-Annual-Report-2014.pdf
- Colorado Government, Zoonotic Disease in Colorado: Annual Report 2015, https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/DC_CD_Zoo-Annual-Report-2015.pdf